Genome refers to all the genetic information of a living thing. Genomics (genome) research is a part of genetics and is the field that analyzes and studies the sequence of various biological genomes.
The concept of genomics was initiated by Fred Sanger, who first sequenced the complete genome of virous and mitochondrion in the 1970s. The term Genomics was first used by Tom Roderick of Jackson Laboratory in a meeting on human genome mapping in 1986.
On February 12, 2001, the Human Genome Mapping Team, an international consortium of six countries (US, UK, France, Germany, Japan, and China), and Celera Genomics, a US venture company, announced the fact that they found about 99% of thesequence listing of the human genome through their independent studies. The Human Genome Project, which began in 1990, was completed at a cost of $ 2.7 billion for about 13 years.
Since then, ‘Solexa’ and ’454 life sciences’ opened the era of new next generation genomics by releasing ‘Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)’ system to analyze large-capacity genom of 500Mb ~ 1Gb with a short period of ten days. Currently, one Illumina Novaseq system (6Tb) can analyze all genomes of 60 people in two days, and the $ 100 genome era has come in decades after the completion of the human genome project, making it an area accessible for a variety of purposes at a low cost.